A Real time project need front end and back end to provide service to clients. A front end application contains logics and a back end applications contains the following three types of logic
- Presentation logic
- Business logic
- Persistence logic
Business logic contains the implementation of business rules of an application, persistence logic is a logic used for making the data of an application is a persistent data.
Persistence logic is a logic used for making the data of an application is a persistent data, persistence data is nothing but permanent data as a data whose life time is more than a process which is created that data, to make some data as persistent initially we use file as back end.With files we got some draw backs
- Files are complex to work
- Files does not have any query language support
- Files are less secure
- Files does not apply constraints on data
- It is not possible to put the relationships like one to many or many to one or many to many between the data stored in files.
In order to overcome the above drawback of this file management system, we are using data base management system.Initially, a front end application is connected with a database using a set of functions provided by database vendor. We called these set of functions as Vendor API. If a front end applications is using a set of functions given by one vendor then it will connect with that vendor database only. It means front end application has become as data dependent.
The drawback of vendor Api is make front end application as database independent.
To overcome this dependency problem, professional from multiple mnc’s are formed as group X/open group. After X/open is rejected by the data base vendors. Because the implementation needs ALC( Assembly language coding). After the failure of this Microsoft with simbha technologies’ another group called ODBC (OPEN DATA BASE CONNCECTIVITY). Even ODBC also has some draw backs, to overcome the above major problems sun Microsystems’s released it’s own api called Jdbc Api.
Jdbc is an API and specification given by sun micro systems to connect a java application with database independent.
The JDBC API provides programmatic access to relational data from the Java programming language. Using the JDBC API, applications written in the Java programming language can execute SQL statements, retrieve results, and propagate changes back to an underlying data source. The JDBC API can also be used to interact with multiple data sources in a distributed, heterogeneous environment. The JDBC API is based on the X/Open SQL CLI, which is also the basis for ODBC. JDBC provides a natural and easy-to-use mapping from the Java programming language to the abstractions and concepts defined in the X/Open CLI and SQL standards.
An Jdbc API contains a set of classes and interfaces for two kinds in the form of